SCIENCE & ART: Predicted return of Halley’s Comet validates Newton’s gravitation theory. POLITICS: Monarchy and parliamentary democracy in England.
Mary Wollstonecraft, English philosopher and women’s rights activist who is best known for her work entitled “A Vindication of the Rights of Woman” (1792).
SCIENCE & ART: Industrial revolution begins in England. POLITICS: Parliament as central authority in England with reduced powers of monarch.
SCIENCE & ART: Invention of steam engine by James Watt in England. POLITICS: English parliament shares power with monarch.
SCIENCE & ART: Thomas Paine, Common Sense: invalidates monarchy; publication of Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations and first volume of Edward Gibbons’ Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. POLITICS: Colonial America under British rule; Monarchy and parliamentary democracy in England.
POLITICS: American War for Independence from England; establishment of political democracy in the United States of America.
POLITICS: French Revolution ends monarchy in France, followed by Reign of Terror then Napoleon as dictator and finally Emperor of France; Napoleonic Wars to establish French empire.
SCIENCE & ART: Edward Jenner innovates immunization (smallpox).
SCIENCE & ART: Invention and introduction of first steam powered railroad locomotive in England. POLITICS: English parliamentary democracy.
SCIENCE & ART: John Dalton elucidates the atomic theory of matter. POLITICS: English parliamentary democracy.
SCIENCE & ART: Harriett Beecher Stowe advanced abolition of slavery in America through her best-selling novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852).
POLITICS: “War is a continuation of politics by other means to compel our adversaries to submit to our will.”—Carl von Clausewitz, Prussian military theorist.
SCIENCE & ART: Sadi Carnot, theory of ideal heat engine (internal combustion), initiates and lays foundation for physical science of thermodynamics. POLITICS: Monarchy in France.
SCIENCE & ART: Invention of photography by Louis Daguerre in France. POLITICS: Monarchy in France.
SCIENCE & ART: Michael Faraday discovery of electromagnetic induction, basis for subsequent technologies using electricity. POLITICS: English parliamentary democracy.
SCIENCE & ART: Invention of telegraph by Samuel F.B. Morse. POLITICS: Democracy in America.
POLITICS: War between U.S. and Mexico – U.S. first war of imperialism.
SCIENCE & ART: Ether anesthesia introduced for surgery by William Morton. POLITICS: Democracy in America.
POLITICS: Political revolutions across continental Europe.
SCIENCE & ART: Florence Nightingale develops the profession of nursing.
POLITICS: Crimean War between Russia, France, England, etc.
SCIENCE & ART: Alfred Russell Wallace and Charles Darwin independently develop concept of biological evolution. POLITICS: English parliamentary democracy.
SCIENCE & ART: Theory of electromagnetic wave propagation, James Clerk Maxwell, basis for radio, television, transmission of electricity, wireless communication. POLITICS: Scotland under English Parliamentary democracy.
POLITICS: Civil War in America, 750,000 military fatalities out of a population of 30 million.
SCIENCE & ART: Foundation of genetics by German scientist and friar Gregor Mendel. POLITICS: Monarchy in Vienna, Austria.
SCIENCE & ART: Invention of sound recording (Thomas Edison), first practical electric light (Edison) and telephone (Elisha Gray). POLITICS: Democracy in America.
SCIENCE & ART: Jazz music develops in America. Scott Joplin develops “ragtime.” Invention of alternating current electrical energy transmission by Nikola Tesla. POLITICS: Democracy in America.
SCIENCE & ART: Daimler and Benz invent automobile powered by internal combustion engine. POLITICS: Monarchy/oligarchy, German Empire.
SCIENCE & ART: Wireless radio transmission first demonstrated by Nikola Tesla. POLITICS: United States political democracy.
POLITICS: War between the U.S. and Spain – second imperialistic war of the U.S.
SCIENCE & ART: Marie Curie pioneered research in radioactivity, Noble Prize winner in both physics and chemistry, first woman to win the Nobel Prize.
Gertrude Elion (1918-1999), American biochemist and pharmacologist, wins the Nobel Prize for Medicine along with George H. Hitchings and James Black. Her work and research led to the development of new drugs to treat a variety of diseases.
SCIENCE & ART: Positive developments. Physics – Einstein’s relativity theory; quantum physics; space exploration and satellite communications. Inventions – the Wright brothers invent the airplane (1903); television, wireless telephony, digital computers, the Internet, transistor microchips and integrated circuits, microwave cooking; nuclear … More
Science used for destructive purposes, e.g., rocket missiles derived from Newton’s laws of motion, gravitation and from laws of thermodynamics; atomic bombs derived from Einstein’s laws of relativity and physical science laws of atomic structure. 165 wars with 180 million total … More