Chapter Overview: 32

The Natural Republic: a Free, Stable, and Voluntary Society

This book is a description and examination of the ideas presented by Andrew J. Galambos in his original lectures that were entitled “Capitalism: The Liberal Revolution.”

When Galambos lectured, he did not disclose that title until the final lecture in the series that is the basis for this book. Postponement of disclosure of the title was due to  Galambos’ concern that the title would be confusing at the outset of the lectures, employing as it does three terms—capitalism, liberal, and revolution—that in contemporary parlance have political connotations that are contrary to the message Galambos intended to convey.

Andrew J. Galambos

Andrew J. Galambos (1924-1997).

An essential premise of this book is that free enterprise governance will come about in an evolutionary way, rather than by overthrow of the political institutions that many, if not most people at present consider to be necessary, or at least a necessary evil.

This book asks the reader to imagine a world in which every activity usually thought to be uniquely the province of the political state is performed by free enterprise.

In contemporary times, human society is confronted by a real and unprecedented crisis—the possibility that another world war would be fought with weapons of mass destruction that would imperil the existence of humanity. This crisis originates in a paradox: the knowledge in science and technology that has been beneficial to humanity can also be used destructively.

It was a goal of Galambos to show a new way of confining technology to positive and productive uses. That way requires the abandonment of politics.

Carl von Clausewitz, the early 19th century German military theorist, observed cogently that war is nothing more than politics carried on by other means to compel one’s adversary to submit to one’s will. It is equally valid to say that politics is war carried on by other means to compel an adversary to submit to one’s will.

The way to permanent peace among humans leads away from politics and war. Until humanity forever abandons politics and warfare, the human species will be at risk of perishing by its own actions.

Andrew Galambos was an astrophysicist who understood the dangers of technology used in the service of aggression. Galambos resigned from a position in the aerospace industry because he did not want to work on guidance systems for intercontinental ballistic missiles.

Galambos wanted to make the world safe for continuation of humanity’s great journey of discovery—the continual search for advances in knowledge. To that end Galambos looked to science for advancement and improvement in human governance.

Galambos called the scientific method the supreme tool for error rectification. He sought to apply the scientific method to the identification and eradication of errors in human governance.

War is one of the greatest of human errors, along with the religious intolerance that has engendered many wars.

Another great human error is failure to abide always by the most fundamental principle of human morality—the biblical golden rule: do not unto others that which is hateful to you.

Science, the scientific method, and human interaction

Galambos claimed that he had created a new science, the science of volition, i.e., a science of human choice. A few other profound thinkers of the contemporary era have also declared that the welfare of the human species depends on always and consistently respecting individual choices.

Galambos was among an exceedingly small number of thinkers who declared that political action, including the institution of political democracy, was inimical to and incompatible with the highest aspirations of humanity for peace and freedom. The principles of Galambos’ scientific approach to human society are set forth in two postulates and their corollaries in chapter five of this book.

In practical terms, examining not only the intended purpose of political action, but also its long term consequences is an inquiry using the scientific method. For example, protecting the public from criminal acts is the ostensible purpose of legislative sanctions against criminality. The law and enforcement of law by police, prosecutors, courts and prisons, constitute collectively the justice system in contemporary societies.

That justice system is based on the hypothesis that punishment and the existing justice system are effective in preventing crime. In science, one would make a prediction based on that hypothesis, specifically that the political justice system prevents crime. The next step in science is observation to determine if the prediction comes true.

It is not true. The political system of justice does not prevent crime. There is pervasive criminal activity in every nation on earth, including the United States of America.

Furthermore, the political system of justice is itself a criminal enterprise, as crime is defined in this book, that is crime is a successful, intentional interference with the property of another and thus a successful act of coercion. This is undoubtedly true in societies plagued by corruption among the authorities of the state and by state repression of political dissent. In those societies the system of justice operates on behalf of those in political power and against the interests of the rest of the people.

Political democracies do not suffer from high degrees of corruption and institutionalized repression of political dissent compared to other contemporary societies. Nevertheless, political democracies commit criminal acts. One example is the actions of the United States of America during the Vietnam War of the 1960s and 1970s.

Fifty years after the war it has become evident that the war was a mistaken and tragic undertaking by the United States. During the war, David Harris was sent to prison for his refusal to submit to conscription into the armed forces of the United States.

David Harris was not a common criminal. He had neither stolen anything nor assaulted or robbed anyone. He had an exemplary personal history, including election as student body president at Stanford University. His crime was that he objected to conscription for the Vietnam War on the ground that the United States should not be engaging in that war. He did not want to participate in what he believed to be an unwise and unjust war.

David Harris was married to the popular and successful singer Joan Baez. She withheld from her income tax payments the percentage of tax that she calculated was being used to prosecute the Vietnam War. The United States seized receipts of concerts of Ms. Baez in satisfaction of her tax liability.

The example of treatment of David Harris and Joan Baez is not an extreme example. In the Justice chapter of this book there is extensive documentation of egregious injustices perpetrated by the United States and by its individual states. Those state inflicted injustices are not anomalous; to the contrary, they are characteristic of the political justice system in the United States.

Effective protection of people from crime is occurring contemporaneously, but the protective agency is not the political state. Rather, it is protection by private security and fire protection companies whose services are supplied by contract with the people who are its customers and who pay for the protective service voluntarily. This subject is explored in the Security chapter of this book and elsewhere herein.

Decline and fall of civilizations and societies

Every civilization that has ever existed has experienced or is presently experiencing decline and fall similar to that of the Roman Empire. The cause is always the same: political coercion that is carried so far that it becomes destructive of the state itself. Andrew Galambos posited that beginning in the 1960s the United States began a decline from the peak in prosperity, power, and influence achieved up to that time. There is evidence of the correctness of his assessment discussed throughout this book.

Accelerating growth in knowledge, human freedom, and prosperity

Human society has enjoyed progressively accelerating growth in knowledge and prosperity due to revolutions in human thinking and understanding: the Newtonian or scientific revolution, the liberal revolution also known as the Age of Enlightenment, the industrial revolution, and the American Revolution.

The scientific revolution brought an ever accelerating accumulation of knowledge. The Age of Enlightenment brought liberation from intellectual acquiescence to the coercive and stultifying authority of church and state.

The industrial revolution accomplished ever increasing productivity that brought a widespread increase in living standards of most people to a level far greater than that enjoyed by the monarchs and aristocracy of the past.

The American revolution accomplished liberation from the idea that people need a powerful monarch to provide security and stability in society.

Knowledge as the source of abundance

Where abundance exists, its primary source is knowledge. Where poverty exists, its primary cause is lack of knowledge.

Switzerland and Singapore are nations that are small in size and lacking in natural resources. However, both enjoy prosperity because free enterprise is a characteristic of the economic life of each nation.

Russia has probably greater and more extensive natural resources than any other nation. However, under communism in the 20th century, most Russians suffered from abysmal poverty. Despite the fall of the communist party of Russia in 1991, there is still widespread poverty in Russia. That is because Russia has no history or tradition of individual freedom and protection of property rights of its inhabitants.

The false alternatives of politics

All political debates have three things in common.

  1. There is disagreement over political choices, each of which is certain to displease some or a large number of people affected by the choices.
  2. None of the political choices provides a real and permanent solution to the problem; they are all false alternatives.
  3. All political choices involve coercion.

The anti-capitalistic mentality

Capitalism has raised the average standard of living in an unprecedented way. Nonetheless, many people passionately loathe capitalism. This is because an anti-capitalistic mentality is pervasive in schools, colleges and universities, and the media.

If the reader doubts the foregoing, consider motion pictures and television. There are many motion picture and television dramas and documentaries that focus on the misdeeds of capitalistic enterprise and entrepreneurs without, however, mentioning the accomplishments of free enterprise in every society that encourages it, or even permits it.

There are many examples of business activities that benefit humanity on every scale of human activity, including but not limited to the following.

  • Production, transport, and retail stores that bring lower prices and better quality to consumers of food and tangible items in use by everybody.
  • Unprecedented mobility for people achieved by the builders of the vehicles of transportation on the ground, at sea, and in the air and by petroleum producers who provide the fuel for motor vehicles.
  • Worldwide communication at the speed of light via mobile telephony, digital computer technology, and mastery of electromagnetic and rocket technology used in satellites and mobile phones.
  • Entrepreneurial philanthropic activity by individuals who find creative ways to aid the poor of the world, such as Muhammad Yunus, Eric Reynolds, Bill and Melinda Gates, as described in this chapter and elsewhere in this book.

How often does one see in the media reports of activities such as those of Muhammad Yunus, Eric Reynolds, and Bill and Melinda Gates?

Seldom.

How often does one see in the media reports of harmful activities by individual entrepreneurs and businesses?

Frequently.

Usually these negative reports are not balanced and thoughtful in showing any of the good that comes also from the activities they criticize.

The true democracy of the free market

In political democracy the minority must submit to the will of the majority. However, in the economic market place no one must submit to the will of anyone else. Every choice counts. This is a true rule of the people, a true democracy of self rule, in which each person rules himself or herself and no others.

Political states: the unique cause of war

Political states are the sole and unique cause of war. There was warfare in traditional, preliterate and Neolithic societies, but they were short-term conflicts that were resolved without destroying the adversary. This is known from anthropological descriptions of preliterate, Neolithic societies still in existence in contemporary times.

Monopoly, non-coercive and coercive

In the United States there are detailed laws controlling and attempting to prevent commercial monopolies—the monopoly of a single supplier of goods or services. Experience has shown that such laws are not necessary, that no commercial monopoly is long lasting except in a product of limited usage. The case of John D. Rockefeller’s Standard Oil is illustrative.

From inception in the early 1860s until the early 1890s Standard Oil became by far the largest petroleum company in the United States. However, it always had smaller competitors. By the 1890s, with the discovery of extensive petroleum resources in Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Louisiana, and California, large new domestic competitors came into existence.

Contemporaneously electric lighting was being introduced in the United States. Until the introduction of electric lighting, kerosene, a petroleum product, was the principal source of lighting in homes and businesses. By the end of the 19thcentury, Standard Oil was negatively impacted both by large competitors and by electric lighting. However, the introduction and widespread acceptance of automobiles created a new business for Standard Oil and other petroleum companies, but not a business in which any of them had monopoly pricing power.

In comparison, the state’s monopoly of coercion is harmful, and eventually destructive of the state itself.

Evolution of the tools of human civilization

Human curiosity, ingenuity, and resourcefulness have led to the development of important tools of civilization including the following.

  • Property
  • Science
  • Mathematics
  • Contract
  • Money
  • Insurance
  • The Corporation
  • Credit and reputation

Each of these tools of civilization is also a tool of freedom in that each magnifies and amplifies the productive capabilities of humanity that increase prosperity. It is increasing prosperity that enables the achievement of greater human freedom. Each of these tools of civilization is discussed in separate chapters of this book.

A note on the corporation

To many people the word “corporation” denotes a profit-seeking enterprise that can exploit its customers unfairly, and that can be used to injure people. However, that is not the essence of a corporation. A corporation is a tool for carrying on an activity over a long period of time. Whenever people start an activity that they expect to continue beyond the duration of the founders lives, they organize in corporate form. That is true of institutions as diverse as a college or university, a religious organization, a hospital, or a municipality. Harvard University, established in 1636, is the oldest corporation in America. Harvard University is located within Cambridge, Massachusetts, an incorporated municipality under the law of the State of Massachusetts.

The quest for freedom and order

As noted economist and philosopher F. A. Hayek observed,

“What are chiefly responsible for having generated [the] extraordinary order [of human civilization], and the existence of mankind in its present size and structure are the rules of human conduct that gradually evolved (especially those dealing with several property), honesty, contract, exchange, trade, competition, gain, and privacy.” 1

F. A. Hayek (1899-1992).

The Natural Republic envisioned in this book is a development of humanity’s perennial striving for both freedom and order—the freedom of each individual to pursue happiness in his or her own way, and the orderliness evidenced by effective, non-coercive, proprietary protection of each individual’s life and property, including an individual’s ideas and freedom of action that does not impinge on anyone else’s freedom.

SIC ITUR AD ASTRA

Andrew Galambos was an astrophysicist. He believed that the destiny of humanity was to explore beyond the confines of planet Earth, and even beyond the galaxy of which Earth is a part. Andrew Galambos intended to write a book recording his ideas. He passed on without having written the book. His intended title was Sic Itur Ad Astra, Latin for “this is the way to the stars.” That title epitomizes ideas about the prospects for humanity, if humans could avoid destructive wars in the future.

 

Notes:

  1. Quoted from Hayek, F. A., The Fatal Conceit: The Errors of Socialism (1988), page 12
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2 Responses to The Natural Republic: a Free, Stable, and Voluntary Society

  1. Marshall Lewis says:

    Evolution is basic to life, as every living thing strives for survival and only those who compete most effectively survive well, whether it is by body strength, intelligence or pure luck. The process can be ugly, as those who are being eclipsed by the strength, intelligence or luck of others become desperate or impatient and resort to tactics that ignore morality or adherence to the principles of the common good. Unless the science so respected by Galambos somehow develops the ability to modify human behavior to tame desperate resort to aggressive behavior, the Galambos world simply can’t be achieved. Constitutions, laws and rules come about because of the aggressive behavior of a substantial segment of humanity that has to be limited to protect society as a whole. Courts and enforcement of the rules are necessary to protect the objectives of freedom, liberty and fairness. We are engaged in experiments with law and order, with social intervention to protect against riots of the oppressed. The system has a long way to go, as we discover the mistakes in the system, the manipulation by unprincipled participants in the apparatus of the state and the aggressive behavior of leaders who crave power without a notion of public service and succeed through demagoguery to influence masses of people to follow blindly. They are the cause of most wars and can only be stopped by the sacrifice of those principled and powerful. The evolution of government is the effort to curb misdeeds, aggressive behavior and unfairness in society. Avoiding government is impossible until the human spirit loses its need to compete for survival and advancement. That’s not likely to ever happen.

    • fgmarks says:

      Dear Marshall:

      This book advocates free enterprise governance. There is an entire chapter on that subject, chapter 31. On November 25, 2019 chapter 32 was published. It also discusses free enterprise governance. The title of chapter 32 is The Natural Republic: A Free, Stable, and Voluntary Society.

      Most people, everywhere in the world, want to take care of themselves and their loved ones without harming anyone else. That, too, is part of human nature.

      Like you, I grew up believing that what we call government was intended to provide protection from harmful behavior of some of the people

      I no longer believe that protection can be provided by what people at present call government, which I shall refer to sometimes hereinafter as political governance.

      A political state is essentially an institution that claims, and tries to enforce, a monopoly of force and violence. An anti-social person can gain power of a state. With that control of the monopoly power of the state, such a person can do great harm to others—more harm than could ever occur in the absence of the monopoly of coercion that is the state. Adolf Hitler, Mao Zedong, Joseph Stalin, Fidel Castro, Saddam Hussein are contemporary names that symbolize the evil that comes from a centralized, monopoly of power to control other people. History provides other names of such people among the monarchs of the past.

      No one can resist safely the power of a dictator in control of a state.

      In the absence of a political state, no one could be compelled to serve in an army or pay taxes to finance a war.

      In the absence of a political state people would be free to offer protection services. Others would be free to choose whether to subscribe to and pay for such protection services. Consequently, a variety of providers of protection could and would offer their services in competition with each other. None of them would have the power of a political state, because there would be no monopoly.

      Anyone and everyone could choose not to use or pay for some or any protection services.

      Competition and freedom of choice, not coercion and plunder, would be the characteristic of competitively provided protection services of all kinds. Not just protection from violence, but protection from all the risks of life that can best be provided by cooperative action. Protection from fire, from natural hazards, from accidental injuries, and from sickness would be provided, as at present. However, it is protection from violence and coercion that would be the most important—because of human nature. It is human nature that creates people that prey on others. That is the essential reason for preferring not to have the monopoly of power that is a political state.

      Political governance has caused more harm and misery to people than all the individual criminals and criminal gangs that ever lived or existed. I offer the history of the past 239 years as proof of that assertion. Why 239 years? That is the time, since 1781, in which the people of America have tried to establish protection via democratic political processes.

      In 1781 Britain gave up trying to suppress the rebellion that grew into the War for Independence. Here is what has happened since 1781 that to me falsifies any claim that political governance is effective to secure the protection of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.

      In Europe, the various German principalities were united into a single state during the 1860s. From 1864 to 1868 the German state waged wars against Austria and Denmark in order to seize territory from them. The German state invaded France three times between 1870 and 1940 in order to seize territory and make France a vassal state of Germany. You know the rest of the story, the bloodshed and horrors of World War I, World War II and the Nazi attempt to annihilate the Jewish and Slavic peoples during World War II.

      In the Bolshevik revolution of 1917-1922, a small gang calling itself the Communist Party seized control of the territory of the Russian Empire. The blood shed by the Communist Party of Russia is something you know about. Between 1918 and 1922 at least five million Russians, Ukrainians and other peoples died due to the efforts of the Communist Party to achieve complete power. The Bolshevik Red Army invaded Finland in 1939, with the aim of seizing territory. The Red Army invaded Poland in 1920 and again in 1939, to seize territory.

      Between 1928 and 1934 about ten million people died in the Ukraine region due to the program of the Bolsheviks to turn agriculture into a state-run operation. These deaths were deliberately caused by violence and starvation.

      The foregoing is only a partial description of the murders and terrors caused by the Bolshevik political party in its Soviet Union. The total killed in political persecution was 20 million, according to an authoritative, source. That is The Black Book of Communism (1997, English language edition 1999), authored by six French socialist intellectuals.

      The Russian communists cooperated with the German Nazis in dividing Poland between them in 1939, although it took military combat to impose the division upon the Polish people.

      The Russian communists failed to protect the people of the Soviet Union itself from the Nazi invasion of 1941 that led to at least 20 million military and civilian fatalities in the people of Russia and its conquered peoples in the years 1941-1945. The eventual Nazi attack was foreseeable and was actually foreseen for at least eight years, from the time Hitler seized power in Germany in 1933.

      The Bolsheviks started cooperating with the German military in 1922, during the German Weimar Republic. That continued when the Nazis came to power. The Russian communists cooperated with the Nazis right up to June 22, 1941, the date of the Nazi invasion of Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine. That is documented in chapter 25 of CTLR.

      Joseph Stalin’s paranoid activities almost fatally weakened Russia in the 1920s and 1930s. Millions of people were killed in order to quell any opposition to the rule of Stalin. Among these were nearly 90% of the officer corps of the Soviet military in purges in the years 1937-1938, an incident known as the Great Terror. In the Great terror at least one million people were murdered by Stalin’s secret police.

      France failed to oppose the Nazis’ incursion into the Rheinland in March 1936. At the time the French army could have taken virtually riskless action that would have caused the German military to get rid of Hitler. That would have meant no World War II in Europe. Consequently, according to Winston Churchill (speaking in 1946), and who could know better,

      “There never was a war in all history easier to prevent by timely action than [WW II in Europe] . . . It could have been prevented in my belief without the firing of a single shot.”

      The truth and accuracy of that statement is documented in CTLR chapter 25.

      The Prime Minister of England, Stanley Baldwin, refused the request of the French foreign minister to support France if they opposed the Nazis’ 1936 Rheinland incursion. Four years later Britain itself was at war with Nazi Germany, in the war that could have been prevented as indicated above.

      The sellout of the people of Czechoslovakia by England and France at Munich in 1938 was not only ineffective in avoiding war, it was counterproductive as it made the Nazis job easier. The Czechs were ready, willing, and able to fight effectively in their own defense, aided by mountainous border country difficult to conquer. They could have inflicted heavy losses on the German military.

      The sellout to Hitler at Munich is a prime example of how poorly political states protect their people. The Munich agreement with the Nazis lulled the British and French people into weakness in preparation to defend against the ultimate Nazi attack.

      The aggression of Nazi Germany cost the German people dearly in military and civilian deaths, at least seven million, and the destruction of major German cities and 44 years of Russian control of communist East Germany. This is not a good example of the ability of political governance to protect people.

      In Asia, the Empire of Japan waged wars of conquest from 1894 until its final defeat in 1945. Those wars also cost tens of millions of lives. World War II in Asia included several million military and civilian fatalities of Japan itself, and the destruction of some of their major cities.

      In the western hemisphere, oceans of blood were shed in the pursuit of political power. In the Mexican revolution that started around 1911, a political party emerged that killed over one million Mexicans in its quest for total power. Until recently that party, the PRI, ruled Mexico as a dictatorship in which elections always kept the PRI in power, despite its corruption that hampered terribly the progress of the Mexican people.

      Indigenous communist political dictatorships calling themselves socialist caused lots of death and destruction in Cuba, Nicaragua, and Venezuela. Those nations are still ruled by socialistic dictatorships that victimize their own people. They are not good examples of the ability of political governance to protect people.

      The United States of America was founded with the noble objectives stated in the Declaration of Independence. Yet the United States came under the control of political leaders who committed the nation to wars of aggression against Mexico and the people of the Philippines.

      Henry David Thoreau justifiably denounced the Mexican War. Mark Twain justifiably denounced the Philippine-American War.

      The U.S. war in the Philippines (1899-1902) war resulted in the deaths of at least 200,000 Filipino civilians, mostly due to famine and disease. However, there were a considerable number of Filipino deaths due to military violence intended to suppress rebellion against the U.S.

      Why war in the Philippines, a nation 7,000 miles away that presented no threat to the American people? In pursuit of establishing military bases in the Philippines, in order to have a military presence in East Asia.

      The U.S. military presence in East Asia made inevitable a war with Imperial Japan. That war started in December 1941 with the attacks on the U.S. military at Pearl Harbor and the U.S. military garrison in the Philippines. Those attacks caused the death of 33,000 U.S. military personnel, 2,400 at Pearl Harbor and 31,000 in the Philippines. Most of the Philippine garrison died in combat or during imprisonment.

      The U.S. military acknowledged in its own history that the garrison in the Philippines could not be defended if the Japanese military attacked, therefore it would have to be sacrificed! Those were the exact words of the U.S. military history. Yet the garrison was not withdrawn from the Philippines, leaving these 31,000 Americans to be killed by the Japanese military.

      Why? To what purpose, to what end?

      Then there was the American Civil War that killed 750,000 combatants in a country with a population of thirty million, comparable to eight million deaths at present when the U.S. is so much larger. In my opinion that was a totally unnecessary war. I have spelled out my reasons for that opinion in chapter 13 of CTLR. I won’t repeat them or even try to summarize them here, except to say that Abraham Lincoln’s only objective was to prevent secession of the southern states, not to end slavery. He said so himself. That statement is quoted and documented in CTLR chapter 13.

      The Injustices of political rule were epitomized by African slavery in the United States. In the United States, African slavery is a prominent example of injustice. However, many more are described in the CTLR chapter on Justice. The U.S. Constitution adopted in the years 1787 to 1789 could not have come into existence without codifying and institutionalizing African slavery.

      Few Americans were slaveholders in 1787 or 1861 or at any time. Without the political coercion of laws recognizing slavery and establishing fugitive slave laws, slavery could have ended gradually and sooner than it did, and without a Civil War. That is the way de jure slavery ended elsewhere in the world. Most combatants in the Civil War were not slaveholders, including most of the soldiers of the Confederacy. There was a small but growing movement for abolition of slavery in America, whose proponents helped fugitive slaves to attain and keep their freedom.

      The Vietnam War was not a war of aggression by the United States. However, it was not necessary to the defense of the people of the United States, as proven by the subsequent establishment of friendly U.S. relations with the communist regime of Vietnam. The war cost 58,000 American combat fatalities, many more wounded in the U.S. military, and an estimated one million Vietnamese fatalities.

      Has the United States been able to protect the American people? I think not. It did not prevent the Japanese military attacks on Pearl Harbor and the Philippines in 1941. Those attacks had been anticipated for over thirty years before they actually occurred. There were considered imminent in the year before they occurred in 1941. The U.S. never needed a military presence in East Asia for protection of the American people. Therefore, all war losses in the Pacific region from1941 to 1945 were avoidable without sacrificing the security of the American people. The losses included 122,000 military fatalities in the Pacific Theater during World War II. The information is in CTLR chapter 13.

      The United States did not protect the American people from the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. Such an attack was anticipated for at least six years before it happened, and probably for at least twenty-five years. The attack could have been prevented easily, by adopting airline security procedures used by El Al for several decades before September 11, 2001. Again, the proof of this statement appears in CTLR chapters 13 and 26.

      Could private enterprise do better? Chapter 26 of CTLR makes the case that it could.

      Are the American people safe now from possible attacks by nuclear bombs carried by ICBMs or otherwise, from chemical or biological warfare? I think not. Could such protection by provided effectively by free enterprise? I think so. I will not elaborate here.

      Free Enterprise could do no worse than the abysmal record of political states sketched above. It would have been easy for free enterprise to do better. In America, all that was necessary was to avoid the conduct of the Unites States that actually endangered its citizens before and during the Civil War, World War I, World War II and the Vietnam War.

      You state that “unless the science so respected by Galambos somehow develops the ability to modify human behavior to tame desperate resort to aggressive behavior, the Galambos world simply can’t be achieved.”

      Human nature cannot be changed. However, it is not necessary to change human nature in order to protect life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.

      Most people, everywhere in the world, want to take care of themselves and their loved ones without harming anyone else. That, too, is part of human nature.

      In order to provide effective, if imperfect protection against human aggression, it is only necessary to recognize the kinds of offenses perpetrated by anti-social human beings, to anticipate that it will occur, to identify the people who are likely to act anti-socially, and to take action to prevent them from attacking others.

      That is exactly what effective, proactive security must do, and does do. Effective security does not wait until the occurrence of attacks on people and property.

      That is what El Al does for air travel security.

      That is what Securitas AB does. It is the world’s largest privately owned security company, but it is only one among many thousands of security companies operating around the world. The following is from the Securitas website

      “Effective prevention

      “The daily reports from our security officers in 56 countries, channeled through our Securitas Operation Centers, give us access to valuable data from a wide range of assignments. By combining our analysis of historical data with real-time information from various forms of electronic monitoring, such as cameras, sensors, automatic face recognition and robots, we can proactively stop theft and damage, and fires and other dangerous incidents can be prevented before they occur. Securitas also devotes considerable energy to providing the security and protection of privacy required for the storage of large quantities of data.”

      To see more about the crime prevention services of Securitas, you may go here

      Many people will be reluctant to hire private security, or will be unable to afford to do so. They do not have to. The existence of effective private security on behalf of those who can afford it and use it redounds to the benefit of everybody.

      How so? That is explained in some detail in CTLR chapter 26.

      The objection of unaffordability by individuals is beside the point that police and the political criminal justice system do not and cannot protect individuals. One example:

      The Los Angeles Police Department and police departments generally cannot protect poor people or anybody from criminal activity. Some movies illustrate this point, including Boyz in the Hood, Traffic, Grand Canyon, Traffic, and American Me.

      One time Los Angeles Chief of Police Ed Davis said the police cannot protect you. If you want personal protection get a dog and get a gun.

      Private security does more to protect persons and properties effectively than do privately owned dogs and guns.

      In southern Oregon in the past fifteen or so years, local police cutbacks in service prompted the formation of several private security companies that do what the police should do, and far more. You can see an example of this at the website of Concierge Home and Business Watch of Grants Pass, Oregon.

      In non-security, non-military aspects of life, all that political governance does is create polarization of political attitudes, intolerance of the opinions of political opponents, and bankrupts the nation into the bargain. We see this today, but it has been developing all along, ever since 1781 in America.

      [End]

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